The first two freedoms concern the passage of commercial aircraft through foreign airspace and airports, while the other freedoms concern the international transport of passengers, mail and cargo. The first to fifth freedom is officially listed by international treaties, including the Chicago Convention. Several other freedoms have been added and, although most of them are not officially recognized by the international treaties generally in force, they have been agreed by a number of countries. Lower freedoms are relatively universal, while higher numbered freedoms are rarer and more controversial. Liberal open-air agreements are often the least restrictive form of air agreements and can encompass many, if not all, freedoms. They are relatively rare, but the recent single aviation markets in the European Union (European Common Aviation Area) and between Australia and New Zealand are examples. The Vienna Convention on Road Transport was concluded in Vienna on 8 November 1968. Since its entry into force on 21 May 1977, it has replaced previous road conventions in signatory States („Parties“) in accordance with Article 48 of the Convention, and in particular the 1949 Geneva Convention on Road Transport. The Convention has been ratified by 83 countries, but those that have not ratified the Convention may still be parties to the 1949 Geneva Convention on Road Transport. Ireland, Canada, cyprus, Iceland, Malta, China, Malaysia and the United States are examples of non-signatory countries.
Originally a maritime concept, cabotage now encompasses aviation, railways and road transport. This is „trade or navigation in coastal waters or the exclusive right of a country to operate air traffic on its territory“.  The eighth unofficial freedom is the right to transport passengers or goods between two or more points in a foreign country and is also called cabotage. :31 It is extremely rare outside Europe. The most important example is that of the European Union, where such rights exist between all its Member States. Other examples are the Domestic Aviation Market (SAM), established in 1996 between Australia and New Zealand; the 2001 Protocol to the Multilateral Agreement on the Liberalization of International Air Transport (MALIAT) between Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore; The „Island Hopper“ route connecting United Airlines from Guam to Honolulu can carry passengers within the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, although the countries involved are closely related to the United States. . . .