The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. Bodansky D (2016) The Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A New Hope? Law J On the Int 110:288-319. doi.org/10.5305/amerjintelaw.110.2.0288 Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not be carried out until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a „facilitation dialogue“ on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020. Nevertheless, in 1992, the UNFCCC distinguished between the schedule I parties with respect to some of the key climate change commitments, such as the obligation to take policies and actions in Article 4, paragraph 2, point a). More importantly, the obligations of the agreement were primarily based on the inclusion of countries in Schedule I (a list of countries that at the time included the OECD and other countries in transition to a market economy) or Schedule II (a subset of Schedule I, including oecd countries at the time). However, other categories of countries are mentioned. For example, it lists a wide range of categories of developing countries related to the effects of climate change and the effects of implementing response measures, including small island countries, countries with fragile ecosystems, fossil fuel countries, landlocked countries, etc.
In addition, contracting parties must take into account the specific needs and specific situations of the least developed countries in terms of technology transfer (Article 4.9). The alliance of small island states and least developed countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most affected by the negative effects of climate change, has taken the initiative to address losses and damage as a particular theme of the Paris Agreement.  However, developed countries were concerned that looking at the issue as a separate issue that goes beyond adaptation would create additional climate funding or imply legal responsibility for catastrophic climate events. The Paris Agreement establishes a global framework to prevent dangerous climate change by limiting global warming to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and by making efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to strengthen countries` capacity to cope with the effects of climate change and to assist them in their efforts. Climate Action Tracker (2019) Climate Action Tracker. climateactiontracker.org/countries/.